A doubleperiodic array of pairs of parallel gold nanorods is shown to have a negative refractive index in the optical range. The image formed by the first surface is treated as an object for the second. Pdf the negative index of refraction demystified researchgate. Negative index of refraction draft 1 free download as powerpoint presentation. Metamaterials and negative refractive index science. A general condition is derived for the phase velocity to be oppositely directed to the power flow. Negative refractive index in optics of metaldielectric. Coated nonmagnetic spheres with a negative index of. Optical negativeindex metamaterials purdue engineering. The retrieved refractive index critically depends on the phase of the transmitted wave, which emphasizes the importance of phase measurements in finding.
Physics of negative refractive index materials 453 1. Optical negativeindex metamaterials nature photonics. The names mean the same thing, but our description appeals. A metamaterial intended to have a negative index of refraction is fabricated using aluminum plates and split ring resonators printed onto circuit boards. No, the index of refraction is the constant of proportionality between the speed of light in a vacuum and phase velocity. Refraction in media with a negative refractive index. That extends the recently studied case of propagation in mediums for which the relative. Th e refractive index is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light propagation in materials. Mediums with negative phase velocity esm intranet site. We study electromagnetic wave propagation in mediums in which the effective relative permittivity and the effective relative permeability are allowed to take. Broad street, philadelphia, pennsylvania 19122, usa. Weiglhofer, the negative index of refraction demystified, european journal of physics, 23, 2002, 353 359. Negative refractive index in lefthanded materials david r. Although negative refractive index does not violate any fundamental laws, causality places restrictions on the analytic form for the index as a function of frequency.
Diverse approaches for achieving nr and nim are covered, such as using photonic crystals, phononic crystals, splitring resonators srrs and continuous media, focusing of waves, guidedwave behavior, and nonlinear effects. Wave propagation in negative index metamaterial youtube. Alberto favaro and luzi bergamin department of physics, imperial. Students can solve ncert class 10 science light reflection and refraction multiple choice questions with answers to know their preparation level.
A thin metal film pierced with holes of appropriate size or spacing between them can be used as a metamaterial with the gradient negative index of refraction. Wave propagation in negative index metamaterial here drude model in time domain. An illustrative case study demonstrates that in general the spectrum divides into five distinct regions. Kildishev school of electrical and computer engineering, purdue university, west lafayette, in 47907 an array of pairs of parallel gold nanorods is shown to have a negative refractive index. Such behavior results from the plasmon resonance in the pairs of nanorods for both the electric and the magnetic components. My question is, if permittivity and permeabilitity of a material is negative then the end product, according to the above equation, should be positive.
A prism constructed out of the metamaterial is found to result in several refracted beams, one. The refractive index can be seen as the factor by which the speed and the wavelength of the radiation are reduced with respect to their vacuum values. This book deals with the subject of optical and electronic negative refraction nr and negative index materials nim. Thus, under the right conditions, negative refraction can be observed in photonic crystals. While sensible enough, such nomenclature conceals the importance of dissipative effects. We report the results of a snells law experiment on a negative index of refraction material in free space from 12. Mcq questions for class 10 science light reflection and. Refractive index, also called index of refraction, measure of the bending of a ray of light when passing from one medium into another. Wave propagation in a slab with negative index of refraction. The refractive index of the prism has to be higher than that of the medium under measurement, as otherwise there will be no total internal reflection. Negative refractive index due to chirality jiangfeng zhou,1 jianfeng dong,2,1 bingnan wang,1 thomas koschny,1,3 maria kafesaki,3 and costas m. Weiglhoferthe negative index of refraction demystified. Uniform refraction in negative refractive index materials cristian e. Much of that interest has been sparked by the prospect of mms with negative refractive index a property not found in nature.
Soukoulis1,2, 1ames laboratoryusdoe and department of physics and astronomy, iowa state university, ames, iowa 50011 2research center of crete, forth, heraklion, crete, greece received 20 june 2002. Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials. The negative index of refraction demystified iopscience. Refraction in media with a negative refractive index s. In particular, we consider lefthanded materials, i.
Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials v. Soukoulis1,3 1ames laboratory and department of physics and astronomy, iowa state university, ames, iowa 50011, usa 2institute of optical fiber commun. Pdf we study electromagnetic wave propagation in mediums in which the effective relative permittivity and the effective relative permeability. That extends the recently studied case of propagation in media for which the relative permittivity and relative permeability are both simultaneously negative, to include dissipation as well. Demonstrating a negative index of refraction a thesis reed. Realization of broadband negative refraction in visible.
The angle of refraction is used to characterize the index of refraction of the material. The measuring prism acts as the refractive index reference. Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction. A slab of the negative refractive index metamaterial has a focal length that can be tuned by changing the gradient of the negative refractive index. Veselago always referred to the materials as left handed, because the wave vector is antiparallel to the usual righthanded cross product of the electric and magnetic fields. Sign of the refractive index in a gain medium with negative. Refraction of light rays by material with negative. Mcq questions for class 10 science with answers was prepared based on latest exam pattern. The light rays impinge on a plate of material with negative refractive index n. In 2000, it was shown theoretically that several photonic crystal configurations could exhibit the same types of optical phenomena predicted for negative index materials, including negative refraction and imaging by a planar surface. The negative index of refraction demystified iopscience institute.
Free pdf download of cbse class 10 science chapter 10 light reflection and refraction multiple choice questions with answers. Citeseerx the negative index of refraction demystified. Numerical simulations using maxwells equations solvers show good agreement with the experimental results, con. Negative index of refraction, perfect lenses and transformation optics some words of caution. A similar effect can be accomplished with metal strips in which the refractive index can reach. If two negative numbers multiplied should give a positive number. We show how the sign of the refractive index in any medium may be derived using a rigorous analysis.
This demonstration shows the effect of negative refraction. Metamaterials with negative refraction may lead to the development of a superlens capable of imaging objects and fi ne structures that are much smaller than the wavelength of light. This article is as good as any tutorial on the physics of negative index of refraction. Brief overview of recent developments on negative phase. The negative index of refraction demystified arxiv. Negative refractive index metamaterials nrm are artificial composites, characteri zed by subwavelength features and negative effective value of re fractive index 2, 3. Both experiments and simulations demonstrate that a negative refractive index is achieved at the optical communication wavelength of using the array of nanorods. One can clearly see the negative lateral displacement associated with negative refraction. We study electromagnetic wave propagation in mediums in which the effective relative permittivity and the effective relative permeability are allowed to take any value in the upper half of the complex plane. Osa negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials. Negative index metamaterial or negative index material nim is a metamaterial whose refractive index for an electromagnetic wave has a negative value over some frequency range nims are constructed of periodic basic parts called unit cells, which are usually significantly smaller than the wavelength of the externally applied electromagnetic radiation. One can also notice that received power for the oblique incident angle was lower that power received in the case of normal incidence. Finally, the last group of chapters investigates split ring resonator and wire unit cells to make metamaterials for creation of negative index materials.
The refractive behavior of an optical medium depends essentially on the reduced refractive index n. If i is the angle of incidence of a ray in vacuum angle between the incoming ray and the perpendicular to the surface of a medium, called the normal and r is the. The calculated index of refraction for this particular example, 165 degrees, d10 cm was n1. Coated nonmagnetic spheres with a negative index of refraction at infrared frequencies mark s. The refraction peaks of all of the individual traces were positioned at similar negative angles. Refraction by a thick lens the general problem of refraction by a thick lens is solved by applying the equation for the refraction at one surface to each surface in turn.
Department of electrical and computer engineering, university of toronto, 10 kings college road, toronto, ontario, canada, m5s 3g4. Negative refractive index metamaterials sciencedirect. Negative refractive index does not necessarily require both negative permittivity and negative permeability. It was cowritten by john pendry, who has been credited for inventingdiscovering the. Stewart aitchison, and mohammad mojahedi the edward s. That extends the recently studied case of propagation in mediums for which the relative permittivity and relative permeability are both simultaneously negative, to include dissipation as well.1419 452 383 179 243 787 193 1184 937 606 362 609 286 1116 669 1212 447 184 1067 981 1252 1150 1340 833 40 162 953 52 416 204 149 611 1514 1259 692 997 904 584 854 766 1099 507